Sergey Koroliov (1907-1966) was the Soviet scientist, engineer, leader of rocket and space technology branch, pioneer of practical cosmonautics. He was born on 12 January 1907 in Zhitomyr, Ukraine. Sergey has designed his first airframe in the beginning of 1920s. In 1931, he established Group for the Study of Reactive Motion, one of the first rocket organizations in the USSR. In 1933, Sergey became deputy director of Jet Propulsion Research Institute (RNII). He was involved in construction of experimental missiles and rocket airplane. In 1938, Sergey was unreasonably imprisoned and sent to Kolyma. During the Second World War, he was working in experimental design bureau. The scientist was released from prison in 1944. Since 1946 and till the end of his life, Sergey Koroliov worked as the chief designer of long-range ballistic missiles, Vostok and Sputnik carrier rockets and their modifications, Vostok and Voskhod flying units, automatic interplanetary stations, specialized Earth satellites. In 1957, the first artificial Earth satellite was launched under the guidance of Sergey Koroliov. In 1961, he was involved in launching of Vostok, the first manned spaceship. Sergey was the author of Н-1 lunar transport system. The first human orbit mission by Yuri Gagarin was also guided by Sergey Koroliov in 1961.
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The great heart surgeon Nikolay Amosov (1913-2002) was born in a poor peasant family. In 1935, he entered medical university and then graduated with honors. During the Second World War, he was working as a military surgeon and performed more than four thousand operations. In 1953, Nikolay defended his doctoral dissertation and became the Department Head in Kyiv Medical Institute. In 1955, he was one of the first doctors who began to cure cardiac defect. He created heart-lung apparatus. In 1962, he used an artificial cardiac valve in his operation for the first time in history. In the same year, he was assigned status of correspondent member of Medical Sciences Academy. In 1983, Nikolay Amosov became the Head of Vascular Surgery Institute. He has performed more than ten thousand operations during his life. The scientist invented a plenty of unique technologies and wrote tens of books. Nikolay Amosov has also developed his own anti-age program, which includes daily exercise and proper diet.
Igor Sikorsky (1889-1972) was a great aircraft designer. He was born in Kyiv in a doctor`s family. In 1907, he entered Kyiv Polytechnical Institute. Igor constructed his first helicopter model at the age of 19. In 1908-1911, he created two coaxial configuration helicopters without swashplate. In 1910, his C-2 airplane performed its first flight. In 1911, Igor Sikorsky gained a pilot diploma. In 1912-1914, he created Grand and Ilya Murometz airplanes, which laid the foundation of multi-engine aviation. The scientist immigrated to the USA in March 1919. In 1923, he established Sikorsky Aero Engineering Corporation. Until 1939, Sikorsky has designed more than 15 types of airplanes, and starting from 1939, he began to create single rotor configuration helicopters with swashplate. These helicopters quickly gained popularity. Vought-Sikorsky 300, the first experimental helicopter designed by Igor in the USA, came off the ground on 14 September 1939. The first flights across Atlantic and Pacific oceans were performed by Sikorsky helicopters. In 1963, Igor Sikorsky was awarded ASME medal, the highest award of American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
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Vladimir Vernadsky (1863-1945) was born in Saint Petersburg in a family of Ukrainian noblemen. He studied in Saint Petersburg University at physics and mathematics department. In 1885, Valdimir became Mineralogy chamber keeper in his University. In 1897, he defended his doctoral thesis. In 1898, he became professor of Moscow University. Since 1908, he actively participated in organization of radioactive material study expeditions. In 1918, Vladimir Vernadsky became one of the founders and the first president of Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. He has made plenty of great discoveries, including biosphere theory and unity of Earth waters theory. He has also developed biogeochemistry science. Vernadsky was one of the first scientists who studied uranium for nuclear power development purposes. His biosphere theory gained the widest popularity in the second part of XX century. In this time, ecology science began to expand, and biosphere theory became one of its basic concepts. According to Vladimir Vernadsky our Earth is one alive organism, and all the processes taking place in atmosphere, lithosphere and hydrosphere are united.
The real name of Yuriy Kondratiuk (1897-1942) was Alexander Shargey. He was born in Ukrainian city Poltava. In 1916, he entered Petrograd Polytechnic University, but was taken to army in the same year. Until 1918, he was a warrant officer on Turkish front. After October Revolution, he was a Tsarist army officer, but soon he deserted. Alexander was scared to be arrested by Bolsheviks due to his Tsarist past, so in 1921 he got the documents for the name Yuriy Kondratiuk. He lived under this name for the rest of his life. However, it was not safe to stay in Ukraine, so Yuriy Kondratiuk escaped to Kuban` and found there a job on Krylovsky elevator. There he began to write his scientific works. In his books, Yuriy described sequence of space exploration stages. In 1929, he completed his main scientific work, Conquest of Interplanetary Space. This unique book tells about intermediate stations (rocket bases) functioning as planets` satellites; trajectory of energy-conserving launching from Earth; usage of particular metals (magnesium, lithium, aluminum and other) for rocket propellant; plan of lunar expedition through the Moon orbit. Yuriy Kondratiuk`s calculations were used by Americans in their lunar program and in landing on the Moon. The trajectory, developed by the scientist, is called Kondratyuk's route.
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